Our Research

Cardus Education Survey 2018: Perceptions of High School Experience and Preparedness for Life
Cardus Education Survey 2018: Perceptions of High School Experience and Preparedness for Life
2019-09-19T12:00:04

This report from the 2018 Cardus Education Survey examines the school sector effect on how graduates of nongovernmental and public schools in the U.S think about their experiences in high school, including an assessment of their high school’s quality and climate, the relationships they formed there, and how well they felt prepared for key dimensions of adulthood, including university, career, and personal relationships. It is based on a representative survey of 1500 randomly selected American high school graduates (ages 24-39). The Cardus Education Survey includes a large number of controls for many factors in student development such as parental education, religion, and income, to isolate a school sector's particular impact. 

Who Chooses Ontario Independent Schools and Why? (Summary)
Who Chooses Ontario Independent Schools and Why? (Summary)
2019-09-09T13:00:02

Ontario's independent school sector is growing at a remarkable pace. Who chooses independent schools in Ontario and why? What is the demographic profile of families who are choosing independent schools? What are the reasons behind their choices? This is the first study in over a decade to answer those questions. 

To read the full report, click here.

Who Chooses Ontario Independent Schools and Why?
Who Chooses Ontario Independent Schools and Why?
2019-09-09T12:00:24

Ontario's independent school sector is growing at a remarkable pace. Who chooses independent schools in Ontario and why? What is the demographic profile of families who are choosing independent schools? What are the reasons behind their choices? This is the first study in over a decade to answer those questions. 

To read a summary of the report, click here.

To check out the British Columbia findings, click here.

To check out the Alberta findings, click here.

Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Alberta
Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Alberta
2019-09-05T11:00:57

Parents in Alberta rely on diverse care options for their children. Policy-makers should respect the needs and choices of parents by continuing to focus on child care policies that are equitable for all families, regardless of the type of care they choose.

Recent Statistics Canada data show that parents depend on diverse forms of care to best meet the needs of their family. This includes the 46 percent of parents in Alberta with children under six who do not use non-parental care. However, funding is primarily directed to centre-based care. How can the Alberta government include all families in its child care policy? 

Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for British Columbia
Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for British Columbia
2019-09-05T10:00:48

Parents in British Columbia rely on diverse care options for their children. Policy-makers should respect the needs and choices of parents by continuing to focus on child care policies that are equitable for all families, regardless of the type of care they choose.

Recent Statistics Canada data show that parents depend on diverse forms of care to best meet the needs of their family. This includes the 42 percent of parents in BC with children under six who do not use non-parental care. However, funding is primarily directed to centre-based care. How can the BC government include all families in its child care policy? 

Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Ontario
Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Ontario
2019-09-05T09:00:14

Ontario parents rely on diverse care options for their children. Policy-makers should respect the needs and choices of parents by continuing to focus on child care policies that are equitable for all families, regardless of the type of care they choose.

Recent Statistics Canada data show that parents depend on diverse forms of care to best meet the needs of their family. This includes the 46 percent of parents in Ontario with children under six who do not use non-parental care. However, funding is primarily directed to centre-based care. How can the Ontario government include all families in its child care policy? 

Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Canada
Creating Equitable Child Care Policy for Canada
2019-09-05T08:00:35

Canadian parents rely on diverse care options for their children. Federal policy-makers can develop a narrative that encourages child care policies that are equitable for all families.

Recent Statistics Canada data show that parents depend on diverse forms of care to best meet the needs of their family. This includes the 40 percent of parents with children under six who do not use non-parental care. However, funding is primarily directed to centre-based care. How can the federal government include all families in its child care policy?

2018 US Cardus Education Survey: The Ties that Bind
2018 US Cardus Education Survey: The Ties that Bind
2019-09-04T12:00:25

This report from the 2018 Cardus Education Survey examines the school sector effect on the social ties of graduates of nongovernmental and public schools in the U.S. It is based on a representative survey of 1500 randomly selected American high school graduates (ages 24-39). The Cardus Education Survey includes a large number of controls for many factors in student development such as parental education, religion, and income, to isolate a school sector's particular impact. This report measures the strength and diversity of the social ties held by American graduates and the influence of the various school sectors on these social outcomes.  

2018 US Cardus Education Survey: Spiritual Strength, Faithful Formation
2018 US Cardus Education Survey: Spiritual Strength, Faithful Formation
2019-08-29T10:02:20

This report from the 2018 Cardus Education Survey examines the school sector effect on the religious commitment and spiritual formation of graduates of nongovernmental and public schools in the U.S. It is based on a representative survey of 1500 randomly selected American high school graduates (ages 24-39). The Cardus Education Survey includes a large number of controls for many factors in student development such as parental education, religion, and income, to isolate a school sector's particular impact.  

Cardus Education Survey 2018: Involved and Engaged
Cardus Education Survey 2018: Involved and Engaged
2019-08-23T15:49:00

This report from the 2018 Cardus Education Survey examines the school sector effect on civic and political participation for graduates of nongovernmental and public schools in the U.S. It is based on a representative survey of 1500 randomly selected American high school graduates (ages 24-39). The Cardus Education Survey includes a large number of controls for many factors in student development such as parental education, religion, and income, to isolate a school sector's particular impact.

Who Chooses Independent Schools in British Columbia and Why?
Who Chooses Independent Schools in British Columbia and Why?
2019-08-21T08:00:41

Who chooses independent schools and why? 

A number of studies have explored this research question, but it has been over a decade in Canada and four decades in British Columbia (BC) since extensive parent surveys were conducted to answer these questions. With 608 representative independent school parents, using an online questionnaire with the same research question and comparable methodology, this study examines whether the Ontario findings from 2007 hold true in BC twelve years later.

To read a summary of this report, click here.

To check out the Ontario findings, click here.

To check out the Alberta findings, click here.

Cardus Education Survey 2018: From the Classroom to the Workplace
Cardus Education Survey 2018: From the Classroom to the Workplace
2019-08-19T17:11:55

This report from the 2018 Cardus Education Survey examines the school sector effect on education and career outcomes for graduates of nongovernmental and public schools in the U.S. It is based on a representative survey of 1500 randomly selected American high school graduates (ages 24-39). The Cardus Education Survey includes a large number of controls for many factors in student development such as parental education, religion, and income, to isolate a school sector's particular impact.

The Changing Face of Payday Lending in Canada
The Changing Face of Payday Lending in Canada
2019-06-26T14:27:03

In this paper, Cardus continues its multi-year study of the payday loan market in Canada and evaluates which policies are working, which are not, and what yet remains unknown about payday loans, consumer behaviour, and the impact of government regulation on the supply and demand for small-dollar loans.

Halacha and Civil Society
Halacha and Civil Society
2019-04-30T12:00:38

In this speech given at a CRFI symposium in Ottawa, Rabbi Dr. Reuven Bulka offers personal reflections on how the respect (or lack of respect) for religious freedom in Canada has helped or hindered the Jewish community's participation in public life.  Offering his prognosis and concerns for the future of religious freedom in Canada, Rabbi Bulka explores examples of cooperation, conflict, and relevant court cases that have shaped the present relationship between civil and Jewish law in Canadian society.

Education Reform in Canada
Education Reform in Canada
2019-04-25T10:00:27

This paper is based on the discussion of education reform at an event in the Cardus Ottawa office in March 2019. The panel consisted of Ray Pennings, Danielle Smith, and Deani Van Pelt. They discussed a global perspective on education, conservative and business perspectives on education, and spurring innovation in education. 

Religious Schools: Seedbeds of Civic Virtue in the Culture War?
Religious Schools: Seedbeds of Civic Virtue in the Culture War?
2019-04-04T09:00:43

Non-government, and especially religious, schools are often considered damaging to social cohesion. Advocates of public, government-run schools suggest that the inclusiveness and diversity that comes from being available to every student in the community teaches students about learning to live together in difference.

Judaism and the Social Order
Judaism and the Social Order
2019-03-26T11:21:47

Two Models for Accommodation

In this paper, Jonathan Milevsky explores Jewish understandings of the social order by examining the thought of two influential 20th century rabbis, David Novak and Emil Fackenheim. This paper is the second in a series of three papers published by the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute on the intersection of civil law and Jewish law (halakha). It was delivered at a CRFI symposium at the Ottawa Torah Centre in November 2018.

Funding Fairness for Students in Ontario with Special Education Needs
Funding Fairness for Students in Ontario with Special Education Needs
2019-03-20T14:00:21

Education funding reform is long overdue for students with special needs in Ontario. Currently students with special needs receive special education funding only if they attend a public government school. 

This paper calculates the expenditure required for funding reform for students with special education needs who attend an independent non-government school.

Women's Happiness, Women's Health
Women's Happiness, Women's Health
2019-03-04T17:00:55

This paper marks International Women's Day 2019 by asking whether it is possible to be both pro-woman and pro-life.  

It highlights the diverse voices and views of early feminist leaders like Mattie Brinkerhoff and Victoria Woodhull to discuss the various kinds of "feminisms" that have existed over time, and the diverse claims they have made regarding abortion. Drawn from a speech given to the deVeber Institute, Andrea Mrozek challenges both pro-life leaders and feminist leaders to broaden their tents, remember their roots, and renew the conversation about how best to advance women's happiness and women's health.

Synagogue and State: The Evolution of the Relationship Between the Jewish People, Halacha, and the State
Synagogue and State: The Evolution of the Relationship Between the Jewish People, Halacha, and the State
2019-02-11T09:00:34

This paper traces the history of Jewish halachic law and its encounters with political authority and civil law around the world.  Unpacking a complex relationship, Rabbi Fogel describes how Jewish law has historically served as both a "protector" and a "bridge" for Jewish communities under oppressive, supportive, and benign governance. 

He explores Jewish views of religious and civil law, conflicts between them, and how Jewish communities and secular states have navigated tensions. He writes, "Ultimately, the relationship between Halacha and societal law is the longest-running case study of a religious minority—one that is often persecuted and oppressed—struggling to maintain its identity while simultaneously trying to engage in and contribute to the broader society. Through it all, Halacha has acted as both the protector of the Jewish faith and the bridge between the Jewish community and the societies that it has encountered. 

While this story is far from over, I hope this paper can provide some insight into how Jewish law perceives secular law, the secular state, and its relationship to both."

Joint Letter Requesting Federal Reinstatement of Marriage and Divorce Rate Data
Joint Letter Requesting Federal Reinstatement of Marriage and Divorce Rate Data
2019-01-25T16:09:00

On Jan 25, 2019 a letter with 31 signatories went to the federal government asking for the reinstatement of the collection of marriage and divorce rate statistics. Since that time, additional signatories have added their names requesting the reinstatement of this valuable data.

A Positive Vision for Child Care Policy Across Canada
A Positive Vision for Child Care Policy Across Canada
2019-01-21T12:00:55

Avoiding the social and economic pitfalls of "universal" child care.

Opportunity and Temptation: A Reformed Christian Legal Perspective on Church Discipline in Canada
Opportunity and Temptation: A Reformed Christian Legal Perspective on Church Discipline in Canada
2019-01-21T12:00:24

In this paper, André Schutten and John Sikkema explore church-state relations in Reformed Christian thought. They describe the high view of both government and local church authority present in the Reformed tradition. They examine recent legal conflicts in Canada between church and state, including Supreme Court cases such as Wall v. Highwood Congregation and the two Trinity Western University cases (2018), and human rights tribunal proceedings regarding the institutional autonomy of congregations to enforce church discipline. This paper is the third in a series of presentations made at the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute's Symposium on the Intersection of Civil and Canon Law.

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