In this paper, Cardus continues its multi-year study of the payday loan market in Canada and evaluates which policies are working, which are not, and what yet remains unknown about payday loans, consumer behaviour, and the impact of government regulation on the supply and demand for small-dollar loans.
In this speech given at a CRFI symposium in Ottawa, Rabbi Dr. Reuven Bulka offers personal reflections on how the respect (or lack of respect) for religious freedom in Canada has helped or hindered the Jewish community's participation in public life. Offering his prognosis and concerns for the future of religious freedom in Canada, Rabbi Bulka explores examples of cooperation, conflict, and relevant court cases that have shaped the present relationship between civil and Jewish law in Canadian society.
This paper is based on the discussion of education reform at an event in the Cardus Ottawa office in March 2019. The panel consisted of Ray Pennings, Danielle Smith, and Deani Van Pelt. They discussed a global perspective on education, conservative and business perspectives on education, and spurring innovation in education.
Non-government, and especially religious, schools are often considered damaging to social cohesion. Advocates of public, government-run schools suggest that the inclusiveness and diversity that comes from being available to every student in the community teaches students about learning to live together in difference.
Two Models for Accommodation
In this paper, Jonathan Milevsky explores Jewish understandings of the social order by examining the thought of two influential 20th century rabbis, David Novak and Emil Fackenheim. This paper is the second in a series of three papers published by the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute on the intersection of civil law and Jewish law (halakha). It was delivered at a CRFI symposium at the Ottawa Torah Centre in November 2018.
Education funding reform is long overdue for students with special needs in Ontario. Currently students with special needs receive special education funding only if they attend a public government school.
This paper calculates the expenditure required for funding reform for students with special education needs who attend an independent non-government school.
This paper marks International Women's Day 2019 by asking whether it is possible to be both pro-woman and pro-life.
It highlights the diverse voices and views of early feminist leaders like Mattie Brinkerhoff and Victoria Woodhull to discuss the various kinds of "feminisms" that have existed over time, and the diverse claims they have made regarding abortion. Drawn from a speech given to the deVeber Institute, Andrea Mrozek challenges both pro-life leaders and feminist leaders to broaden their tents, remember their roots, and renew the conversation about how best to advance women's happiness and women's health.
This paper traces the history of Jewish halachic law and its encounters with political authority and civil law around the world. Unpacking a complex relationship, Rabbi Fogel describes how Jewish law has historically served as both a "protector" and a "bridge" for Jewish communities under oppressive, supportive, and benign governance.
He explores Jewish views of religious and civil law, conflicts between them, and how Jewish communities and secular states have navigated tensions. He writes, "Ultimately, the relationship between Halacha and societal law is the longest-running case study of a religious minority—one that is often persecuted and oppressed—struggling to maintain its identity while simultaneously trying to engage in and contribute to the broader society. Through it all, Halacha has acted as both the protector of the Jewish faith and the bridge between the Jewish community and the societies that it has encountered.
While this story is far from over, I hope this paper can provide some insight into how Jewish law perceives secular law, the secular state, and its relationship to both."
On Jan 25, 2019 a letter with 31 signatories went to the federal government asking for the reinstatement of the collection of marriage and divorce rate statistics. Since that time, additional signatories have added their names requesting the reinstatement of this valuable data.
Avoiding the social and economic pitfalls of "universal" child care.
In this paper, André Schutten and John Sikkema explore church-state relations in Reformed Christian thought. They describe the high view of both government and local church authority present in the Reformed tradition. They examine recent legal conflicts in Canada between church and state, including Supreme Court cases such as Wall v. Highwood Congregation and the two Trinity Western University cases (2018), and human rights tribunal proceedings regarding the institutional autonomy of congregations to enforce church discipline. This paper is the third in a series of presentations made at the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute's Symposium on the Intersection of Civil and Canon Law.
This paper answers questions such as "What is Canon Law?" and "What are its sources, uses, and its theological basis in the Roman Catholic Church?" Fr. Laschuk, the Judicial Vicar for the Archdiocese of Toronto, also explores Christian and canonical understandings of the proper relationship between church and state and between civil and canon law. This paper is the second in a series of three papers published by the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute on the intersection of civil and canon law.
The paper, "Canon Law and its Intersection with Civil Law Throughout Canadian History" authored by Rev. Francis Morrisey briefly traces the history of Roman Catholic canon law in New France and Canada from the 16th century to the present. It was delivered at the first Decretum Symposium of the Cardus Religious Freedom Institute in Ottawa in October 2018.
Extensive public opinion research shows that faith and religion are an integral part of Canadian society. But that doesn’t mean we’re comfortable addressing the subject – or even laughing about it.
This submission to the Ontario Ministry of Education offers several recommendations to improve education policy and learning in Ontario. The report offers incremental steps to enhance parental choice, increase educational diversity for the common good, and establish a more accountable and cooperative relationship with Ontario's growing independent school sector.
Is marriage going out of style? The statistics suggest yes. What hasn't gone out of style, however, is love and relationships. When it comes to teaching healthy relationships to youth, marriage is the highest standard for consensually entered, safe relationship.
This paper outlines why marriage should be included in modern sexuality education curricula in Ontario and across Canada.
This paper tackles critical but neglected questions affecting diverse societies today. What activity does freedom of conscience protect? Why protect this activity in a bill of rights? When can governments limit this freedom? Can governments pressure citizens to adopt beliefs against their conscience? How does freedom of conscience differ from religious freedom? What is the relationship between human dignity and freedom of conscience?
This paper grapples with the current relevance of freedom of conscience and makes the case for robust protection of this fundamental human right.
Has the growth of online dating services and apps made finding a suitable partner easier? The evidence suggests that fewer Canadian young adults are in marriages and cohabiting partnerships than in the past. In short, young people today are more likely to be on their own.
Better is Possible proposes a new way forward for improving education for everyone: increased independent school enrollment. If provincial governments deliberately sought to increase independent schools’ share of all enrollment by five to 10 percent, the sector would be large enough to provide parents with a stronger education alternative without system-wide disruption. Moreover, Cardus President and CEO Michael Van Pelt argues a stronger independent school sector would spur innovation and increased accountability among Canada’s public schools.
In 2016 Cardus Education delivered its second report on the Cardus Education Survey for Canada. Those reports—and this—present findings from surveys examining outcomes for secondary-school graduates of independent schools and public schools. The Cardus Education Survey makes a significant methodological, theoretical, and empirical contribution to the research into religious schools in Canada and the United States and is the only study that uses repeated measures to report on the outcome of religious non-government schooling and compares it to public-school outcomes. One of the main problems with existing data is the lack of attention to diversity within the independent school sector. In addition, regional differences in the impact of independent schools on students’ lives have not been carefully considered.
This report concentrates on Ontario graduates in 2018, drawing on graduates between twenty-four and thirty-nine years old who attended one of the following sectors in Ontario: public, separate Catholic, independent Catholic, evangelical protestant, and non-religious independent.
This report presents findings from surveys examining outcomes for secondary school graduates of independent schools and public schools. The Cardus Education Survey makes a particularly significant methodological, theoretical, and empirical contribution to the research into religious schools in Canada and the United States and is the only study that uses repeated measures to report on the outcome of religious non-government schooling and compare it to public school outcomes. One of the main problems with existing data is the lack of attention to diversity within the independent school sector. In addition, regional differences in the impact of independent schools on students’ lives have not been carefully considered. Cardus research addresses this gap in the literature.
This report concentrates on British Columbia graduates in 2018, drawing on graduates between twenty-four and thirty-nine years old who attended one of the following sectors in the province: public, independent Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and non-religious independent.
A key component of diversity is religion. Businesses, workplaces, and other public spaces can be more attentive to matters of faith. This two-pager provides four steps for businesses to follow in order to more deliberately and systematically make room for religious diversity in the workplace.
A review of the municipal budgets of the affected cities in Ontario shows that over $2 billion worth of public construction work in Ontario is subject to oligopolies annually. And a survey of estimated costs that come as a result of these municipalities being forced to work outside of procurement best practice show that these restrictions are costing Ontarians on average $370 million per year.
Our research shows that closed tendering remains an ongoing challenge for Ontario municipalities that are struggling to build and maintain the infrastructure that serves its citizens in their daily lives, and that is necessary for sustainable economic growth in the province.