Twitter bird logo

Symposium on Religious Freedom as a Fundamental Freedom



Cardus Law explored themes of religious freedom at a conference held in December 2016 at Wycliffe College, in the University of Toronto.

Religious Freedom in a Multicultural Society

Faisal Bhabha

Precis: In examining the impact of recent judicial rulings on cases under Section 2a of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms that enshrines freedom of conscience and religion, Faisal Bhabha draws our attention to how individuals' religious expression has been and is being accommodated within Canadian jurisprudence. Bhabha argues that the Supreme Court of Canada is striving in its decisions to reflect the multicultural nature of Canadian society by striking a balance between competing interests. In so doing, Bhabha posits, the Court is shifting from a posture of strong rights articulation to a weak rights application. The paper also highlights the emerging challenge of 'faithism'—a new form of discrimination increasingly manifested by public sceptics who ascribe negative characteristics or flawed values to people who profess a religious faith—and the impact that such discrimination can have on Canada's multicultural and multi-faith reality.

Download: "Religious Freedom in a Multicultural Society"

Watch: Faisal Bhabha in Toronto, December 2016


Dr. Melanie Adrian, in response to Faisal Bhabha's "Religious Freedom in a Multicultural Society":