Gunderson, Morley and Tingting Zhang, Brian Dijkema. "Up, Up, and Away." Cardus, 2017. https://www.cardus.ca/research/work-economics/research-report/up-up-and-away/
The empirical results of this paper, which compiles bidding data from a variety of Ontario municipalities over time, suggest that restricting tendering to a select group of firms on the basis of their workers’ affiliations will lead to higher costs for municipalities than if they tendered their projects to all qualified bidders, with the strong possibility that municipalities will pay a substantial magnitude more.
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